• Bare Act: Evidence Act, 1872

  • Indian Evidence Act, 1872

    (RELEVANT SECTIONS)

    • Section-3: Interpretation clause
    • Section-4: "May presume"
    • Section-5: Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts
    • Section-6: Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction
    • Section-7: Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue
    • Section-8: Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conduct
    • Section-9: Facts necessary to explain or introduce relevant facts
    • Section-10: Things said or done by conspirator in reference to common design
    • Section-11; When facts not otherwise relevant become relevant
    • Section-12: In suits for damages, facts tending to enable Court to determine amount are relevant
    • Section-13: Facts relevant when right or custom is in question
    • Section-14: Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body or bodily feeling
    • Section-15: Facts bearing on question whether act was accidental or intentional
    • Section-16: Existence of course of business when relevant
    • Section-17: Admission defined
    • Section-18: Admission by party to proceeding or his agent by suitor in representative character
    • Section-20: Admissions by persons expressly referred to by party to suit
    • Section-21: Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf
    • Section-22: When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevant
    • Section-22-A: When oral admission as to contents of electronic records are relevant
    • Section-23: Admissions in civil cases, when relevant
    • Section-24: Confession caused by inducement, threat or promise, when irrelevant in criminal proceeding
    • Section-25: Confession to police officer not to be proved
    • Section-26: Confession by accused while in custody of police not to be proved against him
    • Section-27: How much of information received from accused may be proved
    • Section-28: Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat or promise relevant
    • Section-29: Confession otherwise relevant not to become irrelevant because of promise of secrecy, etc
    • Section-30: Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for same offence
    • Section-31: Admissions not conclusive proof, but may estop
    • Section-32: Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc., is relevant
    • Section-33: Relevancy of certain evidence for proving, in subsequent proceeding, the truth of facts therein stated
    • Section-34: Entries in books of account including those maintained in an electronic form] when relevant
    • Section-35: Relevancy of entry in public record or an electronic record made in performance of duty
    • Section-37.Relevancy of statement as to fact to public nature, contained in certain Acts or notifications
    • Section-38: Relevancy of statements as to any law contained in law-books
    • Section-39: What evidence to be given when statement forms part of a conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers
    • Section-40: Previous judgments relevant to bar a second suit or trial
    • Section-41: Relevancy of certain judgments in probate, etc., jurisdiction
    • Section-42: Relevancy and effect of judgments, orders or decrees, other than those mentioned in section 41
    • Section-43: Judgments, etc., other than those mentioned in sections 40 to 42, when relevant
    • Section-44: Fraud or collusion in obtaining judgment, or incompetency of Court, may be proved
    • Section-45: Opinions of experts
    • Section-46: Facts bearing upon opinions of experts
    • Section-47: Opinion as to handwriting, when relevant
    • Section-47-A: Opinion as to digital signature when relevant
    • Section-48: Opinion as to existence of right or custom, when relevan
    • Section-49: Opinion as to usages, tenets, etc., when relevant
    • Section-50: Opinion or relationship, when relevant
    • Section-51: Grounds of opinion, when relevant
    • Section-52: In civil cases character to prove conduct imputed, irrelevant
    • Section-53: In criminal cases, previous good character relevant
    • Section-54: Previous bad character not relevant, except in reply
    • Section-55: Character as affecting damages
    • Section-56: Fact judicially noticeable need not be proved
    • Section-57: Facts of which Court must take judicial notice
    • Section-58: Facts admitted need not be proved
    • Section-59: Proof of facts by oral evidence
    • Section-60: Oral evidence must be direct
    • Section-61: Proof of contents of documents
    • Section-62: Primary evidence
    • Section-63: Secondary evidence
    • Section-64: Proof of documents by primary evidence
    • Section-65: Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be given
    • Section-65-A: Special provisions as to evidence relating to electronic record
    • Section-65-B: Admissibility of electronic records
    • Section-66: Rules as to notice to produce
    • Section-67: Proof of signature and handwriting of person alleged to have signed or written document produced
    • Section-67-A: Proof as to digital signature
    • Section-68: Proof of execution of document required by law to be attested
    • Section-69: Proof where no attesting witness found
    • Section-70: Admission of execution by party to attested document
    • Section-71: Proof when attesting witness denies the execution
    • Section-72: Proof of document not required by law to be attested
    • Section-73: Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved
    • Section-73-A: Proof as to verification of digital signature
    • Section-74: Public documents
    • Section-75: Private documents
    • Section-76: Certified copies of public documents
    • Section-77: Proof of documents by production of certified copies
    • Section-78: Proof of other official documents
    • Section-79: Presumption as to genuineness of certified copies
    • Section-80: Presumption as to documents produced as record of evidence
    • Section-81: Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documents
    • Section-81-A: Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms
    • Section-82: Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature
    • Section-84:Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions
    • Section-85: Presumption as to power-of-attorney
    • Section-87: Presumption as to books, maps and charts
    • Section-88: Presumption as to telegraphic messages
    • Section-88-A: Presumption as to electronic messages
    • Section-89: Presumption as to due execution, etc. of documents not produced
    • Section-90: Presumption as to documents thirty years old
    • Section-90-A: Presumption as to electronic records five years old
    • Section-91: Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of document
    • Section-92: Exclusion of evidence of oral agreement
    • Section-93: Exclusion of evidence to explain or amend ambiguous document
    • Section-94: Exclusion of evidence against application of document to existing facts
    • Section-95: Evidence as to document unmeaning in reference to existing facts
    • Section-96: Evidence as to application of language which can apply to one only of several persons
    • Section-97: Evidence as to application of language to one of two sets of facts, to neither of which the whole correctly applies
    • Section-98: Evidence as to meaning of illegible characters, etc
    • Section-99: Who may give evidence of agreement varying term of document
    • Section-100: Saving of provisions of Indian Succession Act relating to wills
    • Section-101: Burden of proof
    • Section-102: On whom burden of proof lies
    • Section-103: Burden of proof as to particular fact
    • Section-104: Burden of proving fact to be proved to make evidence admissible
    • Section-105: Burden of proving that case of accused comes within exceptions
    • Section-106: Burden of proving fact especially within knowledge
    • Section-107: Burden of proving death of person known to have been alive within thirty years
    • Section-108: Burden of proving that person is alive who has not been heard of for seven years
    • Section-109: Burden of proof as to relationship in the cases of partners, landlord and tenant, principal and agent
    • Section-110: Burden of proof as to ownership
    • Section-111: Proof of good faith in transactions where one party is in relation of active confidence
    • Section-111-A: Presumption as to certain offences
    • Section-112: Birth during marriage, conclusive proof of legitimacy
    • Section-113-A: Presumption as to abetment of suicide by a married woman
    • Section-113-B: Presumption as to dowry death
    • Section-114: Court may presume existence of certain facts
    • Section-114-A: Presumption as to absence of consent in certain prosecutions for rape
    • Section-115: Estoppel
    • Section-116: Estoppel of tenant; and of licensee of person in possession
    • Section-117: Estoppel of acceptor of bill of exchange, bailee or licensee
    • Section-118: Who may testify
    • Section-119: Dumb witnesses
    • Section-120: Parties to civil suit, and their wives or husbands. Husband or wife of person under criminal trial
    • Section-121: Judges and Magistrates
    • Section-122: Communications during marriage
    • Section-123: Evidence as to affairs of State
    • Section-124: Official communications
    • Section-125: Information as to commission of offences
    • Section-126: Professional communications
    • Section-127: Section 126 to apply to interpreters, etc
    • Section-128: Privilege not waived by volunteering evidence
    • Section-129: Confidential communications with legal advisers
    • Section-130: Production of title-deeds of witness not a party
    • Section-131: Production of documents or electronic records which another person, having possession, could refuse to produce
    • Section-132: Witness not excused from answering on ground that answer will criminate
    • Section-133: Accomplice
    • Section-134: Number of witnesses
    • Section-135: Order of production and examination of witnesses
    • Section-136: Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence
    • Section-137: Examination-in-chief
    • Section-138: Order of examinations
    • Section-139: Cross-examination of person called to produce a document
    • Section-140: Witnesses to character
    • Section-141: Leading questions
    • Section-142: When they must not be asked
    • Section-143: When they may be asked
    • Section-144: Evidence as to matters in writing
    • Section-145: Cross-examination as to previous statements in writing
    • Section-146: Questions lawful in cross-examination
    • Section-147: When witness to be compelled to answer
    • Section-148: Court to decide when question shall be asked and when witness compelled to answer
    • Section-149: Question not to be asked without reasonable grounds
    • Section-150: Procedure of Court in case of question being asked without reasonable grounds
    • Section-151: Indecent and scandalous questions
    • Section-152: Questions intended to insult or annoy
    • Section-153: Exclusion of evidence to contradict answers to questions testing veracity
    • Section-154: Question by party to his own witness
    • Section-155: Impeaching credit of witness
    • Section-156: Question tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact, admissible
    • Section-157: Former statements of witness may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to same fact
    • Section-158: What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under section 32 or 33
    • Section-159: Refreshing memory
    • Section-160: Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section 159
    • Section-161: Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory
    • Section-162: Production of documents
    • Section-163: Giving, as evidence, of document called for and produced on notice
    • Section-164: Using, as evidence, of document production of which was refused on notice
    • Section-165: Judge's power to put questions or order production
    • Section-166: Power of jury or assessors to put questions
    • Section-167: No new trial for improper admission or rejection of evidence
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