• Banking Regulation Act, 1949: Bare Act

  • PART I: PRELIMINARY

    1. Short title, extent and commencement. — (1) This Act may be called the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.

    (2) It extends to the whole of India.

    (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint in this behalf.

    2. Application of other laws not barred. — The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to, and not, save as hereunder expressly provided, in derogation of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), and any other law for the time being in force.

    3. Act to apply to co-operative societies in certain cases. — Nothing in this Act shall apply to. —

    (a) a primary agricultural credit society;

    (b) a co-operative land mortgage bank; and

    (c) any other co-operative society, except in the manner and to the extent specified in Part V.

    4. Power to suspend operation of Act. — (1) The Central Government, if on a representation made by the Reserve Bank in this behalf it is satisfied that it is expedient so to do, may by notification in the Official Gazette suspend for such period, not exceeding sixty days, as may be specified in the notification, the operation of all or any of the provisions of this Act, either generally or in relation to any specified banking company.

    (2) In a case of special emergency, the Governor of the Reserve Bank, or in his absence a Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank nominated by him in this behalf may, by order in writing, exercise the powers of the Central Government under sub-section (1) so however that the period of suspension shall not exceed thirty days, and where the Governor or the Deputy Governor, as the case may be, does so, he shall report the matter to the Central Government forthwith, and the order shall, as soon as may be, be published in the Gazette of India.

    (3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend from time to time the period of any suspension ordered under sub-section (1) or subsection (2) for such period, not exceeding sixty days at any one time, as it thinks fit so however that the total period does not exceed one year.

    (4) A copy of any notification issued under sub-section (3) shall be laid on the table of Parliament as soon as may be after it is issued.

    5. Interpretation. —In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, —

    (a) "approved securities" means--

    (i) securities in which a trustee may invest money under clause (a), clause (b), clause (bb), clause (c) or clause (d) of section 20 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 (2 of 1882);

    (ii) such of the securities authorised by the Central Government under clause (f) of section 20 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 (2 of 1882), as may be prescribed;

    (b) "banking" means the accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawal by cheque, draft, order or otherwise;

    (c) "banking company" means any company which transacts the business of banking in India;

    Explanation. — Any company which is engaged in the manufacture of goods or carries on any trade and which accepts deposits of money from the public merely for the purpose of financing its business as such manufacturer or trader shall not be deemed to transact the business of banking within the meaning of this clause;

    (ca) "banking policy" means any policy which is specified from time to time by the Reserve Bank in the interest of the banking system or in the interest of monetary stability or sound economic growth, having due regard to the interests of the depositors, the volume of deposits and other resources of the bank and the need for equitable allocation and the efficient use of these deposits and resources;

    (cc) "branch" or "branch office" , in relation to a banking company, means any branch or branch office, whether called a pay office or sub-pay office or by any other name, at which deposits are received, cheques cashed or moneys lent, and for the purposes of section 35 includes any place of business where any other form of business referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6 is transacted;

    (d) "company" means any company as defined in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); and includes a foreign company within the meaning of section 591 of that Act;

    (da) "corresponding new bank" means a corresponding new bank constituted under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970 (5 of 1970); or under section 3 of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40 of 1980);

    (e) Omitted by Act 52 of 1953, Section 2.

    (f) "demand liabilities" means liabilities which must be met on demand, and "time liabilities" means liabilities which are not demand liabilities;

    (ff) "Deposit Insurance Corporation" means the Deposit Insurance Corporation established under section 3 of the Deposit Insurance Corporation Act, 1961 (47 of 1961);

    (ffa) "Development Bank" means the Industrial Development Bank of India established under section 3 of the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964 (18 of 1964);

    (ffb) "Exim Bank" means the Export-Import Bank of India established under section 3 of the Export-Import India Act, 1981 (28 of 1981);

    (ffc) "Reconstruction Bank" means the Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India established under section 3 of the Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India Act, 1984 (62 of 1984);

    (ffd) "National Housing Bank" means the National Housing Bank established under section 3 of the National Housing Bank Act, 1987;

    (g) "gold" includes gold in the form of coin, whether legal tender or not, or in the form of bullion or ingot, whether refined or not;

    (gg) "managing agent" includes. —

    (i) Secretaries and Treasurers;

    (ii) Where the managing agent is a company, and director of such company, and any member thereof who holds substantial interest in such company;

    (iii) Where the managing agent is a firm, any partner of such firm;]

    (h) "managing director", in relation to a banking company, means a director who, by virtue of an agreement with the banking company or of a resolution passed by the banking company in general meeting or by its Board of directors or, by virtue of its memorandum or articles of association, is entrusted with the management of the whole, or substantially the whole of the affairs of the company, and includes a director occupying the position of a managing director, by whatever name called:

    Provided that the managing director shall exercise his powers subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the Board of Directors;

    (ha) "National Bank" means the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development established under section 3 of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act, 1981;

    (i) Omitted by Act 33 of 1959, Section 2 w.e.f. 1-5-1982.

    (j) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

    (ja) "regional rural bank" means a regional rural bank established under section 3 of the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 (21 of 1976);

    (k) Omitted by Act 33 of 1959, Section 2 w.e.f. 1-5-1982.

    (l) "Reserve Bank" means the Reserve Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

    (m) Omitted by Act 33 of 1959, Section 2 w.e.f. 1-5-1982.

    (n) "secured loan or advance" means a loan or advance made on the security of assets the market value of which is not at any time less than the amount of such loan or advance; and "unsecured loan or advance" means a loan or advance not so secured;

    (ni) "Small Industries Bank" means the Small Industries Development Bank of India established under section 3 of the Small Industries Development Bank of India, 1989;

    (na) "small-scale industrial concern" means an industrial concern in which the investment in plant and machinery is not in excess of seven and a half lakhs of rupees or such higher amount, not exceeding twenty lakhs of rupees, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, having regard to the trends in industrial development and other relevant factors;

    (nb) "Sponsor Bank" has the meaning assigned to it in the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 (21 of 1976);

    (nc) "State Bank of India" means the State Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955);

    (nd) "subsidiary bank" has the meaning assigned to it in the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959;

    (ne) " substantial interest". —

    (i) in relation to a company, means the holding of a beneficial interest by an individual or his spouse or minor child, whether singly or taken together, in the shares thereof, the amount paid up on which exceeds five lakhs of rupees or ten percent of the paid-up capital of the company, whichever is less;

    (ii) in relation to a firm, means the beneficial interest held therein by an individual or his spouse o r minor child, whether singly or taken together, which represents more than ten per cent of the total capital subscribed by all the partners of the said firm;

    (o) all other words and expressions used herein but not defined and defined in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act.

    (2) Omitted by the A.O. 1950

    5A. Act to override memorandum, articles, etc. — Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act. —(a) the provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the memorandum or articles of a banking company, or in any agreement executed by it, or in any resolution passed by the banking company in general meeting or by its Board of Directors, whether the same be registered, executed or passed, as the case may be, before or after the commencement of the Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1959 (33 of 1959); and

    (b) any provision contained in the memorandum, articles, agreement or resolution aforesaid shall, to the extent to which it is repugnant to the provisions of this Act, become or be void, as the case may be.

    PART II: BUSINESS OF BANIKNG COMPANIES

    6. Forms of business in which banking companies may engage. —(1) In addition to the business of banking, a banking company may engage in any one or more of the following forms of business, namely: —

    (a) the borrowing, raising, or taking up of money; the lending or advancing of money either upon or without security; the drawing, making, accepting, discounting, buying, selling, collecting and dealing in bills of exchange, hoondees, promissory notes, coupons, drafts, bills of lading, railway receipts, warrants, debentures, certificates, scrips and other instruments and securities whether transferable or negotiable or not; the granting and issuing of letters of credit, traveller's cheques and circular notes; the buying, selling and dealing in bullion and specie; the buying and selling of foreign exchange including foreign bank notes; the acquiring, holding, issuing on commission, underwriting and dealing in stock, funds, shares, debentures, debenture stock, bonds, obligations, securities and investments of all kinds; the purchasing and selling of bonds, scrips or other forms of securities on behalf of constituents or others, the negotiating of loans and advances; the receiving of all kinds of bonds, scrips or valuables on deposit or for safe custody or otherwise; the providing of safe deposit vaults; the collecting and transmitting of money and securities;

    (b) acting as agents for any Government or local authority or any other person or persons; the carrying on of agency business of any description including the clearing and forwarding of goods, giving of receipts and discharges and otherwise acting as an attorney on behalf of customers, but excluding the business of a managing agent or secretary and treasurer of a company;

    (c) contracting for public and private loans and negotiating and issuing the same;

    (d) the effecting, insuring, guaranteeing, underwriting, participating in managing and carrying out of any issue, public or private, of State, municipal or other loans or of shares, stock, debentures, or debenture stock of any company, corporation or association and the lending of money for the purpose of any such issue;

    (e) carrying on and transacting every kind of guarantee and indemnity business;

    (f) managing, selling and realising any property which may come into the possession of the company in satisfaction or part satisfaction of any of its claims;

    (g) acquiring and holding and generally dealing with any property or any right, title or interest in any such property which may form the security or part of the security for any loans or advances or which may be connected with any such security;

    (h) undertaking and executing trusts;

    (i) undertaking the administration of estates as executor, trustee or otherwise;

    (j) establishing and supporting or aiding in the establishment and support of associations, institutions, funds, trusts and conveniences calculated to benefit employees or ex-employees of the company or the dependents or connections of such persons; granting pensions and allowances and making payments towards insurance; subscribing to or guaranteeing moneys for charitable or benevolent objects or for any exhibition or for any public, general or useful object;

    (k) the acquisition, construction, maintenance and alteration of any building or works necessary or convenient for the purposes of the company;

    (l) selling, improving, managing, developing, exchanging, leasing, mortgaging, disposing of or turning into account or otherwise dealing with all or any part of the property and rights of the company;

    (m) acquiring and undertaking the whole or any part of the business of any person or company, when such business is of a nature enumerated or described in this sub- section;

    (n) doing all such other things as are incidental or conducive to the promotion or advancement of the business of the company;

    (o) any other form of business which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify as a form of business in which it is lawful for a banking company to engage.

    (2) No banking company shall engage in any form of business other than those referred to in sub-section (1).

    7. Use of words "bank", "banker", "banking" or "banking company". — (1) No company other than a banking company shall use as part of its name or in connection with its business any of the words "bank", "banker" or "banking" and no company shall carry on the business of banking in India unless it uses as part of its name at least one of such words.

    (2) No firm, individual or group of individuals shall, for the purpose of carrying on any business, use as part of its or his name any of the words "bank", "banking" or "banking company".

    (3) Nothing in this section shall apply to. —

    (a) a subsidiary of a banking company formed for one or more of the purposes mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 19, whose name indicates that it is a subsidiary of that banking company;

    (b) any association of banks formed for the protection of their mutual interests and registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).]

    8. Prohibition of trading. — Notwithstanding anything contained in section 6 or in any contract, no banking company shall directly or indirectly deal in the buying or selling or bartering of goods, except in connection with the realisation of security given to or held by it, or engage in any trade, or buy, sell or barter goods for others otherwise than in connection with bills of exchange received for collection or negotiation or with such of its business as is referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 6:

    Provided that this section shall not apply to any such business as is specified in pursuance of clause (o) of sub-section (1) of section 6.

    Explanation. — For the purposes of this section, "goods" means every kind of movable property, other than actionable claims, stocks, shares, money, bullion and specie, and all instruments referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 6.

    9. Disposal of non-banking assets. — Notwithstanding anything contained in section 6, no banking company shall hold any immovable property howsoever acquired, except such as is required for its own use, for any period exceeding seven years from the acquisition thereof or from the commencement of this Act, whichever is later or any extension of such period as in this section provided, and such properly shall be disposed of within such period or extended period, as the case may be:

    Provided that the banking company may, within the period of seven years as aforesaid deal or trade in any such property for the purpose of facilitating the disposal thereof:

    Provided further that the Reserve Bank may in any particular case extend the aforesaid period of seven years by such period not exceeding five years where it is satisfied that such extension would be in the interests of the depositors of the banking company.

    10. Prohibition of employment of managing agents and restrictions on certain forms of employment. —(1) No banking company —

    (a) shall employ or be managed by a managing agent; or

    (b) shall employ or continue the employment of any person—

    (i) who is, or at any time has been, adjudicated insolvent, or has suspended payment or has compounded with his creditors, or who is, or has been, convicted by a criminal court of an offence involving moral turpitude; or

    (ii) whose remuneration or part of whose remuneration takes the form of commission or of a share in the profits of the company:

    Provided that nothing contained in this sub-clause shall apply to the payment by a banking company of—

    (a) any bonus in pursuance of a settlement or award arrived at or made under any law relating to industrial disputes or in accordance with any scheme framed by such banking company or in accordance with the usual practice prevailing in banking business;

    (b) any commission to any broker (including guarantee broker), cashier-contractor, clearing and forwarding agent, auctioneer or any other person, employed by the banking company under a contract otherwise than as a regular member of the staff of the company; or

    (iii) whose remuneration is, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, excessive; or

    (c) shall be managed by any person—

    (i) who is a director of any other company not being—

    (a) a subsidiary of the banking company, or

    (b) a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956):

    Provided that the prohibition in this sub-clause shall not apply in respect of any such director for a temporary period not exceeding three months or such further period not exceeding nine months as the Reserve Bank may allow; or

    (ii) who is engaged in any other business or vocation; or

    (iii) whose term of office as a person managing the company is for period exceeding five years at any one time:

    Provided that the term of office of any such person may be renewed or extended by further periods not exceeding five years on each occasion subject to the condition that such renewal/extension shall not be sanctioned earlier than two years from the date on which it is to come into force:

    Provided also that where the term of office of such person is for an indefinite period, such term, unless it otherwise comes to an end earlier, shall come to an end immediately on the expiry of five years from the date of his appointment or on the expiry of three months from the date of commencement of section 8 of the Banking Laws (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1963 (55 of 1963), whichever is later:

    Provided further that nothing in this clause shall apply to a director, other than the managing director, of a banking company by reason only of his being such director.

    Explanation. — For the purpose of sub-clause (iii) of clause (b), the expression "remuneration", in relation to person employed or continued in employment, shall include salary, fees and perquisites but shall not include any allowances or other amounts paid to him for the purpose of reimbursing him in respect of the expense actually incurred by him in the performance of his duties.

    (2) In forming its opinion under sub-clause (iii) of clause (b) of sub-section (1), the Reserve Bank may have regard among other matters to the following: —

    (i) the financial condition and history of the banking company, its size and area of operation, its resources, the volume of its business, and the trend of its earning capacity;

    (ii) the number of its branches or offices;

    (iii) the qualifications, age and experience of the person concerned;

    (iv) the remuneration paid to other persons employed by the banking company or to any person occupying a similar position in any other banking company similarly situated; and

    (v) the interests of its depositors.

    (3) Omitted by Act 55 of 1963, Section 8 w.e.f. 1-2-1964.

    (4) Omitted by Act 55 of 1963, Section 8 w.e.f. 1-2-1964.

    (5) Omitted by Act 55 of 1963, Section 8 w.e.f. 1-2-1964.

    (6) Any decision or order of the Reserve Bank made under this section shall be final for all purposes.

    10A. Board of directors to include persons with professional or other experience. — (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, every banking company,

    (a) in existence on the commencement of section 3 of the Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1968 (58 of 1968), or

    (b) which comes into existence thereafter,

    shall comply with the requirements of this section:

    Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to a banking company referred to in clause (a) for a period of three months from such commencement.

    (2) Not less than fifty-one per cent, of the total number of members of the Board of directors of a banking company shall consist of persons, who—

    (a) shall have special knowledge or practical experience in respect of one or more of the following matters, namely:—

    (i) accountancy,

    (ii) agriculture and rural economy,

    (iii) banking,

    (iv) co-operation,

    (v) economics,

    (vi) finance,

    (vii) law,

    (viii) small-scale industry,

    (ix) any other matter the special knowledge of, and practical experience in, which would, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, be useful to the banking company:

    Provided that out of the aforesaid number of directors, not less than two shall be persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of agriculture and rural economy, co-operation or small-scale industry; and

    (b) shall not—

    (1) have substantial interest in, or be connected with, whether as employee, manager or managing agent,—

    (i) any company, not being a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or

    (ii) any firm,

    which carries on any trade, commerce or industry and which, in either case, is not a small-scale industrial concern, or

    (2) be proprietors of any trading, commercial or industrial concern, not being a small-scale industrial concern.

    (2A) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or in any other law for the time being in force, —

    (i) no director of a banking company, other than its chairman or whole-time director, by whatever name called, shall hold office continuously for a period exceeding eight years;

    (ii) a chairman or other whole-time director of a banking company who has been removed from office as such chairman, or whole-time director, as the case may be, under the provisions of this Act shall also cease to be a director of the banking company and shall also not be eligible to be appointed as a director of such banking company, whether by election or co-option or otherwise, for a period of four years from the date of his ceasing to be the -chairman or whole-time director as the case may be.

    (3) If, in respect of any banking company the requirements, as laid down in subsection (2), are not fulfilled at any time, the Board of directors of such banking company shall re-constitute such Board so as to ensure that the said requirements are fulfilled.

    (4) If, for the purpose of re-constituting the Board under sub-section (3), it is necessary to retire any director or directors, the Board may, by lots drawn in such manner as may be prescribed, decide which director or directors shall cease to hold office and such decision shall be binding on every director of the Board.

    (5) Where the Reserve Bank is of opinion that the composition of the Board of directors of a banking company is such that it does not fulfil the requirements of subsection (2), it may, after giving to such banking company a reasonable opportunity of being heard, by an order in writing, direct the banking company to so re-constitute its Board of directors as to ensure that the said requirements are fulfilled and, if within two months from the date of receipt of that order, the banking company does not comply with the directions made by the Reserve Bank, that Bank may, after determining, by lots drawn in such manner as may be prescribed, the person who ought to be removed from the membership of the Board of directors, remove such person from the office of the director of banking company and with a view to complying with the provision of sub-section (2) appoint a suitable person as a member of the Board of directors in the place of the person so removed whereupon the person so appointed shall be deemed to have been duly elected by the banking company as its director.

    (6) Every appointment, removal or reconstitution duly made, and every election duly held, under this section shall be final and shall not be called into question in any court.

    (7) Every director elected or, as the case may be, appointed under this section shall hold office until the date up to which his predecessor would have held office, if the election had not been held, or, as the case may be, the appointment had not been made.

    (8) No act or proceeding of the Board of directors of a banking company shall be invalid by reason only of any defect in the composition thereof or on the ground that it is subsequently discovered that any of its members did not fulfil the requirements of this section.

    10B. Banking company to be managed by whole time chairman. —(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force or in any contract to the contrary, every banking company in existence on the commencement of the Banking Regulation (Amendment) Act, 1994 (20 of 1944), or which comes into existence thereafter shall have one of its directors, who may be appointed on a whole-time or a part-time basis, as chairman of its board of directors, and where he is appointed on a whole-time basis, as chairman of its board of directors, he shall be entrusted with the management of the whole of the affairs of the banking company :

    Provided that the chairman shall exercise his powers subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the board of directors.

    (1A) Where a chairman is appointed on a part-time basis, —

    (i) such appointment shall be with the previous approval of the Reserve Bank and be subject to such conditions as the Reserve Bank may specify while giving such approval;

    (ii) the management of the whole of the affairs of such banking company shall be entrusted to a managing director who shall exercise his powers subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the board of directors.

    (2) Every chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis and every managing director of a banking company shall be in the whole-time employment of such company and shall hold office for such period, not exceeding five years, as the board of directors may fix, but shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be eligible for re-election of reappointment:

    Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be construed as prohibiting a chairman from being a director of a subsidiary of the banking company or a director of a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).

    (3) Every person holding office on the commencement of section 3 of the Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1968 (58 of 1968), as managing director of a banking company shall—

    (a) if there is a chairman of its board of directors, vacate office on such commencement, or

    (b) if there is no chairman of its board of directors, vacate office on the date on which the chairman of its board of directors is elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

    (4) Every chairman who is appointed on a whole-time basis and every managing director of a banking company appointed under sub-section (1A) shall be person who has special knowledge and practical experience of—

    (a) the working of a banking company, or of the State Bank of India or any subsidiary bank or a financial institution, or

    (b) financial, economic or business administration :

    Provided that a person shall be disqualified for being a chairman who is appointed on a whole time basis or a managing director, if be—

    (a) is a director of any company other than a company referred to in the proviso to sub-section (2), or

    (b) is a partner of any firm which carries on any trade, business or industry, or

    (c) has substantial interest in any other company or firm, or

    (d) is a director, manager, managing agent, partner or proprietor of any trading, commercial or industrial concern, or

    (e) is engaged in any other business or vocation.

    (5) A chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director of a banking company may, by writing, under his hand addressed to the company, resign his office.

    (5A) A chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director whose term of office has come to an end, either by reason of his resignation or by reason of expiry of the period of his office, shall, subject to the approval of the Reserve Bank, continue in office until his successor assumes office.

    (6) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 36AA where the Reserve Bank is of opinion that any person who, is, or has been elected to be, the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director of a banking company is not a fit and proper person to hold such office, it may, after giving to such person and to the banking company a reasonable opportunity of being heard by order in writing, require the banking company to elect or appoint any other person as the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director and if, within a period of two months from the date of receipt of such order, the banking company fails to elect or appoint a suitable person as the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director, the Reserve Bank may, by order, remove the first-mentioned person from the office of the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director of the banking company and appoint a suitable person in his place whereupon the person so appointed shall be deemed to have been duly elected or appointed, as the case may be, as the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director of such banking company and any person elected or appointed as chairman on a whole-time basis or managing director under this sub-section shall hold office for the residue of the period of office of the person in whose place he has been so elected or appointed.

    (7) The banking company and any person against whom an order of removal is made under sub-section (6) may, within thirty days from the date of communication to it or to him of the order, prefer an appeal to the Central Government and the decision of the Central Government thereon, and subject thereto, the order made by the Reserve Bank under sub-section (6), shall be final and shall not be called into question in any court.

    (8) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, the Reserve Bank may, if in its opinion it is necessary in the public interest so to do, permit the chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or the managing director to undertake such part-time honorary work as is not likely to interfere with his duties as such chairman or managing director.

    (9) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, where a person appointed on a whole-time basis, as chairman of the board of directors or the managing director dies or resigns or is by infirmity or otherwise rendered incapable of carrying out his duties or is absent on leave or otherwise in circumstances not involving the vacation of his office, the banking company may, with the approval of the Reserve Bank, make suitable arrangements for carrying out the duties of chairman or managing director for a total period not exceeding four months.

    10BB. Power of Reserve Bank to appoint Chairman of the Board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director of a banking company. —(1) Where the office, of the chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director of a banking company is vacant, the Reserve Bank may, if it is of opinion that the continuation of such vacancy is likely to adversely affect the interests of the banking company, appoint a person eligible under sub-section (4) of section 10B to be so appointed, to be the chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director of the banking company and where the person so appointed is not a director of such banking company, he shall, so long as he holds the office of the chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director, be deemed to be director of the banking company.

    (2) The chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-lime basis or a managing director so appointed by the Reserve Bank shall be in the whole-time employment of the banking company and shall hold office for such period not exceeding three years, as the Reserve Bank may specify, but shall, subject to other provisions of this Act, be eligible for reappointment.

    (3) The chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director so appointed by the Reserve Bank shall draw from the banking company such pay and allowances as the Reserve Bank may determine and may be removed from office only by the Reserve Bank.

    (4) Save as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 10B shall, as far as may be, apply to the chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director appointed by the Reserve Bank under subsection (1) as they apply to a chairman of the board of directors appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director appointed by the banking company.

    10C. Chairman and certain directors not to be required to hold qualification shares. —Chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-lime basis or a managing director of a banking company (by whomsoever appointed) and a director of a banking company (appointed by the Reserve Bank under section 10A) shall not be required to hold qualification shares in the banking company.

    10D. Provisions of sections 10A and 10B to override all other laws, contracts, etc. —Any appointment or removal of a director, chairman of the board of directors who is appointed on a whole-time basis or a managing director in pursuance of section 10A or section 10B or section 10BB shall have effect and any such person shall not be entitled to claim any compensation for the loss or termination of office, notwithstanding anything contained in any law or in any contract, memorandum or articles of association.

    11. Requirement as to minimum paid-up capital and reserves. —(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 149 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), no banking company in existence on the commencement of this Act, shall, after the expiry of three years from such commencement or of such further period not exceeding one year as the Reserve Bank, having regard to the interests of the depositors of the company, may think fit in any particular case to allow, carry on business in India, and no other banking company shall after the commencement of this Act, commence or carry on business in India unless it complies with such of the requirements of this section as are applicable to it.

    (2) In the case of a banking company incorporated outside India—

    (a) the aggregate value of its paid-up capital and reserves shall not be less than fifteen lakhs of rupees and if it has a place or places of business in the city of Bombay or Calcutta or both, twenty lakhs of rupees; and

    (b) the banking company shall deposit and keep deposited with the Reserve Bank either in cash or in the form of unencumbered approved securities, or partly in cash and partly in the form of such securities—

    (i) an amount which shall not be less than the minimum required by clause (a); and

    (ii) as soon as may be after the expiration of each year, an amount calculated at twenty per cent of its profit for that year in respect of all business transacted through its branches in India, as disclosed in the profit and loss account prepared with reference to that year under section 29:

    Provided that any such banking company may at any time replace—

    (i) any securities so deposited by cash or by any other unencumbered approved securities or partly by cash and partly by other such securities, so however, that the total amount deposited is not affected;

    (ii) any cash so deposited by unencumbered approved securities of an equal value.

    (2A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Central Government may, on the recommendation of the Reserve Bank, and having regard to the adequacy of the amounts already deposited and kept deposited by a banking company under sub-section (2), in relation to its deposit liabilities in India, declare by order in writing that the provisions of sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of sub-section (2) shall not apply to such banking company for such period as may be specified in the order.

    (3) In the case of any banking company to which the provisions of sub-section (2) do not apply, the aggregate value of its paid-up capital and reserves shall not be less than—

    (i) if it has places of business in more than one State, five lakhs of rupees, and if any such place or places of business is or are situated in the city of Bombay or Calcutta or both, ten lakhs of rupees;

    (ii) if it has all its places of business in one State none of which is situated in the city of Bombay or Calcutta, one lakh of rupees in respect of its principal place of business, plus ten thousand rupees in respect of each of its other places of business situated in the same district in which it has its principal place of business, plus twenty-five thousand rupees in respect of each place of business situated elsewhere in the State otherwise than in the same district:

    Provided that no banking company to which this clause applies shall be required to have paid-up capital and reserves exceeding an aggregate value of five lakhs of rupees:

    Provided further that no banking company to which this clause applies and which has only one place of business, shall be required to have paid-up capital and reserves exceeding an aggregate value of fifty thousand rupees:

    Provided further that in the case of every banking company to which this clause applies and which commences banking business for the first time after the commencement of the Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1962 (36 of 1962), the value of its paid-up capital shall not be less than five lakhs of rupees;

    (iii) if it has all its places of business in one State, one or more of which is or are situated in the city of Bombay or Calcutta, five lakhs of rupees, plus twenty-five thousand rupees in respect of each place of business situated outside the city of Bombay or Calcutta, as the case may be:

    Provided that no banking company to which this clause applies shall be required to have paid-up capital and reserves exceeding an aggregate value of ten lakhs of rupees.

    Explanation. — For the purposes of this sub-section, a place of business situated in a State other than that in which the principal place of business of the banking company is situated shall, if it is not more than twenty-five miles distant from such principal place of business, be deemed to be situated within the same State as such principal place of business.

    (4) Any amount deposited and kept deposited with the Reserve Bank under sub-section (2) by any banking company incorporated outside India shall, in the event of the company ceasing for any reason to carry on banking business in India, be an asset of the company on which the claims of all the creditors of the company in India shall be a first charge.

    (5) For the purposes of this section, —

    (a) "place of business" means any office, sub-office, sub-pay office and any place of business at which deposits are received, cheques cashed, or moneys lent;

    (b) "value" means the real or exchangeable value, and not the nominal value which may be shown in the books of the banking company concerned.

    (6) If any dispute arises in computing the aggregate value of the paid-up capital and reserves of any banking company, a determination thereof by the Reserve Bank shall be final for the purposes of this section.

    12. Regulation of paid-up capital, subscribed capital and authorised capital and voting rights of shareholders. — (1) No banking company shall carry on business in India, unless it satisfies the following conditions, namely:—

    (i) that the subscribed capital of the company is not less than one-half of the authorised capital, and the paid-up capital is not less than one-half of the subscribed capital and that, if the capital is increased, it complies with the conditions prescribed in this clause within such period not exceeding two years as the Reserve Bank may allow;

    (ii) that the capital of the company consists of ordinary shares only or of ordinary shares or equity shares and such preferential shares as may have been issued prior to the 1st day of July, 1944:

    Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to any banking company incorporated before the 15th day of January, 1937.

    (2) No person holding shares in a banking company shall, in respect of any shares held by him, exercise voting rights on poll in excess of (ten per cent) of the total voting rights of all the shareholders of the banking company.

    (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force or in any contract or instrument no suit or other proceeding shall be maintained against any person registered as the holder of a share in a banking company on the ground that the title to the said share vests in a person other than the registered holder :

    Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall bar a suit or other proceeding—

    (a) by a transferee of the share on the ground that he has obtained from the registered holder a transfer of the share in accordance with any law relating to such transfer; or

    (b) on behalf of a minor or a lunatic on the ground that the registered holder holds the share on behalf of the minor or lunatic.

    (4) Every chairman, managing director or chief executive officer by whatever name called of a banking company shall furnish to the Reserve Bank through that banking company returns containing full particulars of the extent and value of his holding of shares, whether directly or indirectly, in the banking company and of any change in the extent of such holding or any variation in the rights attaching thereto and such other information relating to those shares as the Reserve Bank may, by order, require and in such form and at such time as may be specified in the order.

    12A. Election of new directors. — (1) The Reserve Bank may, by order, require any banking company to call a general meeting of the shareholders of the company within such time, not less than two months from the date of the order, as may be specified in the order or within such further time as the Reserve Bank may allow in this behalf, to elect in accordance with the voting rights permissible under this Act fresh directors, and the banking company shall be bound to comply with the order.

    (2) Every director elected under sub-section (1) shall hold office until the date up to which his predecessor would have held office, if the election had not been held.

    (3) Any election duly held under this section shall not be called in question in any court.

    13. Restriction on commission, brokerage, discount, etc. on sale of shares. — Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sections 76 and 79 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956)], no banking company shall pay out directly or indirectly by way of commission, brokerage, discount or remuneration in any form in respect of any shares issued by it, any amount exceeding in the aggregate two and one-half per cent of the paid-up value of the said shares.

    14. Prohibition of charge on unpaid capital. — No banking company shall create any charge upon any unpaid capital of the company, and any such charge shall be invalid.

    14A. Prohibition of floating charge on assets. — (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 6, no banking company shall create a floating charge on the undertaking or any property of the company or any part thereof, unless the creation of such floating charge is certified in writing by the Reserve Bank as not being detrimental to the interests of the depositors of such company.

    (2) Any such charge created without obtaining the certificate of the Reserve Bank shall be invalid.

    (3) Any banking company aggrieved by the refusal of a certificate under subsection (1) may, within ninety days from the date on which such refusal is communicated to it, appeal to the Central Government.

    (4)The decision of the Central Government where an appeal has been preferred to it under sub-section (3) or of the Reserve Bank where no such appeal has been preferred shall be final.

    15. Restrictions as to payment of dividend. —(1) No banking company shall pay any dividend on its shares until all its capitalised expenses (including preliminary expenses, organisation expenses, share-selling commission, brokerage, amounts of losses incurred and any other item of expenditure not represented by tangible assets) have been completely written off.

    (2) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sub-section (1) or in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), a banking company may pay dividends on its shares without writing off—

    (i) the depreciation, if any, in the value of its investments in approved securities in any case where such depreciation has not actually been capitalised or otherwise accounted for as a loss;

    (ii) the depreciation, if any, in the value of its investments in shares, debentures or bonds (other than approved securities) in any case where adequate provision for such depreciation has been made to the satisfaction of the auditor of the banking company;

    (iii) the bad debts, if any, in any case where adequate provision for such debts has been made to the satisfaction of the auditor of the banking company.

    16. Prohibition of common directors. —(1) No banking company incorporated in India shall have as a director in its Board of directors any person who is a director of any other banking company.

    (1A) No banking company referred to in sub-section (1) shall have in its Board of directors, more than three directors who are directors of companies which among themselves are entitled to exercise voting rights in excess of twenty per cent of the total voting rights of all the shareholders to that banking company.

    (2) If immediately before the commencement of the Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1956 (95 of 1956), any person holding office as a director of a banking company is also a director of companies which among themselves are entitled to exercise voting rights in excess of twenty percent of the total voting rights of all the shareholders of the banking company, he shall, within such period from such commencement as the Reserve Bank may specify in this behalf-

    (a) either resign his office as a director of the banking company; or

    (b) choose such number of companies as among themselves are not entitled to exercise voting rights in excess of twenty per cent, of the total voting rights of all the shareholders of the banking company as companies in which he wishes to continue to hold the office of a director and resign his office as a director in the other companies.

    (3) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to, or in relation to, any director appointed by the Reserve Bank.

    17. Reserve Fund. — (1) Every banking company incorporated in India shall create a reserve fund and shall, out of the balance of profit of each year as disclosed in the profit and loss account prepared under section 29 and before any dividend is declared, transfer to the reserve fund a sum equivalent to not less than twenty per cent of such profit.

    (1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the Central Government may, on the recommendation of the Reserve Bank and having regard to the adequacy of the paid-up capital and reserves of a banking company in relation to its deposit liabilities, declare by order in writing that the provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply to the banking company for such period as may be specified in the order:

    Provided that no such order shall be made unless, at the time it is made, the amount in the reserve fund under sub-section (1), together with the amount in the share premium account is not less than the paid-up capital of the banking company.

    (2) Where a banking company appropriates any sum or sums from the reserve fund or the share premium account, it shall, within twenty-one days from the date of such appropriation, report the fact to the Reserve Bank, explaining the circumstances relating to such appropriation:

    Provided that the Reserve Bank may, in any particular case, extend the said period of twenty-one days by such period as it thinks fit or condone any delay in the making of such report.

    18. Cash reserve. —(1) Every banking company, not being a scheduled bank, shall maintain in India by way of cash reserve with itself or by way of balance in a current account with the Reserve Bank, or by way of net balance in current accounts or in one or more of the aforesaid ways, a sum equivalent to at least three per cent of the total of its demand and time liabilities in India as on the last Friday of the second preceding fortnight and shall submit to the Reserve Bank before the twentieth day of every month a return showing the amount so held on alternate Fridays during a month with particulars of its demand and time liabilities in India on such Fridays or if any such Friday is a public holiday under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881), at the close of business on the preceding working day.

    Explanation. —In this section, and in section 24, —

    (a) "liabilities in India" shall not include—

    (i) the paid-up capital or the reserves or any credit balance in the profit and loss account of the banking company;

    (ii) any advance taken from the Reserve Bank or from the Development Bank or from the Exim Bank or from the Reconstruction Bank or from the National Housing Bank or from the National Bank or from the Small Industries Bank by the banking company;

    (iii) in the case of a Regional Rural Bank, also any loan taken by such bank from its Sponsor Bank;

    (b) "fortnight" shall mean the period from Saturday to the second following Friday, both days inclusive;

    (c) "net balance in current accounts" shall, in relation to a banking company, mean the excess, if any, of the aggregate of the credit balances in current account maintained by that banking company with State Bank of India or a subsidiary bank or a corresponding new bank over the aggregate of the credit balances in current account held by the said banks with such banking company;

    (d) for the purposes of computation of liabilities, the aggregate of the liabilities of a banking company to the State Bank of India, a subsidiary bank, a corresponding new bank, a regional rural bank, another banking company, a co-operative bank or any other financial institution notified by the Central Government in this behalf, shall be reduced by the aggregate of the liabilities of all such banks and institutions to the banking company;

    (e) the expression "co-operative bank" shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (cci) of section 56.

    (2) The Reserve Bank may, for the purposes of this section and section 24, specify from time to time, with reference to any transaction or class of transactions, that such transaction or transactions shall be regarded as liability in India of a banking company and, if any question arises as to whether any transaction or class of transactions shall be regarded for the purposes of this section and section 24 as liability in India of a banking company, the decision of the Reserve Bank thereon shall be final.

    19. Restriction on nature of subsidiary companies. —(1) A banking company shall not form any subsidiary company except a subsidiary company formed for one or more of the following purposes, namely: —

    (a) the undertaking of any business which, under clauses (a) to (o) of subsection (3) of section 6, is permissible for a banking company to undertake, or

    (b) with the previous permission in writing of the Reserve Bank, the carrying on of the business of banking exclusively outside India, or

    (c) the undertaking of such other business, which the Reserve Bank may, with the prior approval of the Central Government, consider to be conducive to the spread of banking in India or to be other wise useful or necessary in the public interest.


    Explanation. —For the purposes of section 8, a banking company shall not be deemed, by reason of its forming or having a subsidiary company, to be engaged indirectly in the business carried on by such subsidiary company.

    (2) Save as provided in sub-section (1), no banking company shall hold shares in any company, whether as pledgee, mortgagee or absolute owner, of an amount exceeding thirty per cent of the paid-up share capital of that company or thirty per cent of its own paid-up share capital and reserves, whichever is less:

    Provided that any banking company which is on the date of the commencement of this Act holding any shares in contravention of the provisions of this sub-section shall not be liable to any penalty therefor if it reports the matter without delay to the Reserve Bank and if it brings its holding of shares into conformity with the said provisions within such period, not exceeding two years, as the Reserve Bank may think fit to allow.

    (3) Save as provided in sub-section (1) and notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), a banking company shall not, after the expiry of one year from the date of the commencement of this Act, hold shares, whether as pledgee, mortagagee or absolute owner, in any company in the management of which any managing director or manager of the banking company is in any manner concerned or interested.

    20. Restrictions on loans and advances. —(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in section 77 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), no banking company shall,—

    (a) grant any loans or advances on the security of its own shares, or—

    (b) enter into any commitment for granting any loan or advance to or on behalf of—

    (i) any of its directors,

    (ii) any firm in which any of its directors is interested as partner, manager, employee or guarantor, or

    (iii) any company not being a subsidiary of the banking company or a company registered under section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or a Government company of which or the subsidiary or the holding company of which any of the directors of the banking company is a director, managing agent, manager, employee or guarantor or in which he holds substantial interest, or

    (iv) any individual in respect of whom any of its directors is a partner or guarantor.

    (2) Where any loan or advance granted by a banking company is such that a commitment for granting it could not have been made if clause (b) of sub-section (1) had been in force on the date on which the loan or advance was made, or is granted by a banking company after the commencement of section 5 of the Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1968 (58 of 1968), but in pursuance of a commitment entered into before such commencement, steps shall be taken to recover the amounts due to the banking company on account of the loan, or advance together with interest, if any, due thereon within the period stipulated at the time of the grant of the loan or advance, or where no such period has been stipulated, before the expiry of one year from the commencement of the said section 5:

    Provided that the Reserve Bank may, in any case, on an application in writing made to it by the banking company in this behalf, extend the period for the recovery of the loan or advance until such date, not being a date beyond the period of three years from the commencement of the said section 5, and subject to such terms and conditions, as the Reserve Bank may deem fit:

    Provided further that this sub-section shall not apply if and when the director concerned vacates the office of the director of the banking company, whether by death, retirement, resignation or otherwise.

    (3) No loan or advance, referred to in sub-section (2), or any part thereof shall be remitted without the previous approval of the Reserve Bank, and any remission without such approval shall be void and of no effect.

    (4) Where any loan or advance referred to in sub-section (2), payable by any person, has not been repaid to the banking company within the period specified in that subsection, then, such person shall, if he is a director of such banking company on the date of the expiry of the said period, be deemed to have vacated his office as such on the said date.

    Explanation. — In this section—

    (a) "loans or advance" shall not include any transaction which the Reserve Bank may, having regard to the nature of the transaction, the period within which, and the manner and circumstances in which, any amount due on account of the transaction is likely to be realised, the interest of the depositors and other relevant considerations, specify by general or special order as not being a loan or advance for the purpose of this section;

    (b) "director" include a member of any board or committee in India constituted by a banking company for the purpose of managing, or for the purpose of advising it in regard to the management of, all or any of its affairs.

    (5) If any question arises whether any transaction is a loan or advance for the purposes of this section, it shall be referred to the Reserve Bank, whose decision thereon shall be final.

    20A. Restrictions on power to remit debts. —(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in section 293 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), a banking company shall not, except with the prior approval of the Reserve Bank, remit in whole or in part any debt due to it by—

    (a) any of its directors, or

    (b) any firm or company in which any of its directors is interested as director, partner, managing agent or guarantor, or

    (c) any individual if any of its directors is his partner or guarantor.

    (2) Any remission made in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be void and of no effect.

    21. Power of Reserve Bank to control advances by banking companies. —(1) Where the Reserve Bank is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient in the public interest or in the interests of depositors or banking policy so to do, it may determine the policy in relation to advances to be followed by banking companies generally or by any banking company in particular, and when the policy has been so determined, all banking companies or the banking company concerned, as the case may be, shall be bound to follow the policy as so determined.

    (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the power vested in the Reserve Bank under sub-section (1) the Reserve Bank may give directions to banking companies, either generally or to any banking company or group of banking companies in particular, as to—

    (a) the purposes for which advances may or may not be made,

    (b) the margins to be maintained in respect of secured advances,

    (c) the maximum amount of advances or other financial accommodation which, having regard to the paid-up capital, reserves and deposits of a banking company and other relevant considerations, may be made by that banking company to any one company, firm, association of persons or individual,

    (d) the maximum amount up to which, having regard to the considerations referred to in clause (c), guarantees may be given by a banking company on behalf of any one company, firm, association of persons or individual, and

    (e) the rate of interest and other terms and conditions on which advances or other financial accommodation may be made or guarantees may be given.

    (3) Every banking company shall be bound to comply with any directions given to it under this section.

    21A. Rates of interest charged by banking companies not to be subject to scrutiny by courts. — Notwithstanding anything contained in the Usurious Loans Act, 1918 (10 of 1918), or any other law relating to indebtedness in force in any State, a transaction between a banking company and its debtor shall not be re-opened by any court on the ground that the rate of interest charged by the banking company in respect of such transaction is excessive.

    22. Licensing of banking companies. —(1) Save as hereinafter provided, no company shall carry on banking business in India unless it holds a licence issued in that behalf by the Reserve Bank and any such licence may be issued subject of such conditions as the Reserve Bank may think fit to impose.

    (2) Every banking company in existence on the commencement of this Act, before the expiry of six months from such commencement, and every other company before commencing banking business in India, shall apply in writing to the Reserve Bank for a licence under this section:

    Provided that in the case of a banking company in existence on the commencement of this Act, nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to prohibit the company from carrying on banking business until it is granted a licence in pursuance of this section or is by notice in writing informed by the Reserve Bank that a licence cannot be granted to it:

    Provided further that the Reserve Bank shall not give a notice as aforesaid to a banking company in existence on the commencement of this Act before the expiry of the three years referred to in sub-section (1) of section 11 or of such further period as the Reserve Bank may under that sub-section think fit to allow.

    (3) Before granting any licence under this section, the Reserve Banking may require to be satisfied by an inspection of the books of the company or otherwise that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely : —

    (a) that the company is or will be in a position to pay its present or future depositors in full as their claims accrue;

    (b) that the affairs of the company are not being, or are not likely to be, conducted in a manner deterimental to the interests of its present or future depositors;

    (c) that the general character of the proposed management of the company will not be prejudicial to the public interest or the interest of its depositors;

    (d) that the company has adequate capital structure and earning prospects;

    (e) that the public interest will be served by the grant of a licence to the company to carry on banking business in India;

    (f) that having regard to the banking facilities available in the proposed principal area of operations of the company, the potential scope for expansion of banks already in existence in the area and other relevant factors the grant of the licence would not be prejudicial to the operation and consolidation of the banking system consistent with monetary stability and economic growth;

    (g) any other condition, the fulfilment of which would, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, be necessary to ensure that the carrying on of banking business in India by the company will not be prejudicial to the public interest or the interests of the depositors.

    (3A) Before granting any licence under this section to a company incorporated outside India, the Reserve Bank may require to be satisfied by an inspection of the books of the company or otherwise that the conditions specified in sub-section (3) are fulfilled and that the carrying on of banking business by such company in India will be in the public interest and that the Government or law of the country in which it is incorporated does not discriminate in any way against banking companies registered in India and that the company complies with all the provisions of this Act applicable to banking companies incorporated outside India.

    (4) The Reserve Bank may cancel a licence granted to a banking company under this section —

    (i) if the company ceases to carry on banking business in India; or

    (ii) if the company at any time fails to comply with any of the conditions imposed upon it under sub-section (1); or

    (iii) if at any time, any of the conditions referred to in sub-section (3) and sub-section (3A) is not fulfilled:

    Provided that before cancelling a licence under clause (ii) or clause (iii) of this sub-section on the ground that the banking company has failed to comply with or has failed to fulfil any of the conditions referred to therein, the Reserve Bank, unless it is of opinion that the delay will be prejudicial to the interests of the company's depositors or the public, shall grant to the company on such terms as it may specify, an opportunity of taking the necessary steps for complying with or fulfilling such condition.

    (5) Any banking company aggrieved by the decision of the Reserve Bank cancelling a licence under this section may, within thirty days from the date on which such decision is communicated to it, appeal to the Central Government.

    (6) The decision of the Central Government where an appeal has been preferred to it under sub-section (5) or of the Reserve Bank where no such appeal has been preferred shall be final.]

    23. Restrictions on opening of new, and transfer of existing, places of business. — (1) Without obtaining the prior permission of the Reserve Bank—

    (a) no banking company shall open a new place of business in India or change otherwise than within the same city, town or village, the location of an existing place of business situated in India; and

    (b) no banking company incorporated in India shall open a new place of business outside India or change, otherwise than within the same city, town or village in any country or area outside India, the location of an existing place of business situated in that country or area:

    Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to the opening for a period not exceeding one month of a temporary place of business within a city, town or village or the environs thereof within which the banking company already has a place of business, for the purpose of affording banking facilities to the public on the occasion of an exhibition, a conference or a mela or any other like occasion.

    (2) Before granting any permission under this section, the Reserve Bank may require to be satisfied by an inspection under section 35 or otherwise as to the financial condition and history of the company, the general character of its management, the adequacy of its capital structure and earning prospects and that public interest will be served by the opening or, as the case may be, change of location, of the place of business.

    (3) The Reserve Bank may grant permission under sub-section (1) subject to such conditions as it may think fit to impose either generally or with reference to any particular case.

    (4) Where, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, a banking company has, at any time, failed to comply with any of the conditions imposed on it under this section, the Reserve Bank may, by order in writing and after affording reasonable opportunity to the banking company for showing cause against the action proposed to be taken against it, revoke any permission granted under this section.

    (4A) Any regional rural bank requiring the permission of the Reserve Bank under this section shall forward its application to the Reserve Bank through the National Bank which shall give its comments on the merits of the application and send it to the Reserve Bank:

    Provided that the regional rural bank shall also send an advance copy of the application directly to the Reserve Bank.

    (5) For the purpose of this section "place of business" includes any sub-office, pay office, subpay office and any place of business at which deposits are received, cheques cashed or moneys lent.

    24. Maintenance of a percentage of assets. —(1) Omitted by Banking Regulation Amendment Act, 2007.

    (2) Omitted by Banking Regulation Amendment Act, 2007.

    *[(2A) A scheduled bank, in addition to the average daily balance which it is, or may be, required to maintain under section 42 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and every other banking company, in addition to the cash reserve which it is required to maintain under section 18, shall maintain in India, assets, the value of which shall not be less than such percentage not exceeding forty per cent. of the total of its demand and time liabilities in India as on the last Friday of the second preceding fortnight as the Reserve Bank may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify from time to time and such assets shall be maintained, in such form and manner, as may be specified in such notification.";]

    *[Substituted by Banking Regulation Amendment Act, 2007]

    (2B) Omitted by Banking Regulation Amendment Act, 2007

    (3) For the purpose of ensuring compliance with the provisions of this section, every banking company shall, not later than twenty days after the end of the month to which it relates, furnish to the Reserve Bank in the prescribed form and manner a monthly return showing particulars of its assets maintained in accordance with this section, and its demand and time liabilities in India at the close of
    business on each alternate Friday during the month, or if any such Friday is a public holiday, at the close of business on the preceding working day:

    Provided that every Regional Rural Bank shall also furnish a copy of the said return to the National Bank.

    (4)(a) If on any alternate Friday or, if such Friday is a public holiday, on the preceding working day, the amount maintained by a banking company at the close of business on that day falls below the minimum prescribed by or under clause (a) of sub-section (2A) such banking company shall be liable to pay to the Reserve Bank in respect of that day's default, penal interest for that day at the rate of three per cent per annum above the bank rate on the amount by which the amount actually maintained falls short of the prescribed minimum on that day; and

    (b) If the default occurs again on the next succeeding alternate Friday, or, if such Friday is a public holiday, on the preceding working day, and continues on succeeding alternate Fridays or preceding working days, as the case may be, the rate of penal interest shall be increased to a rate of five per cent per annum above the bank rate on each such shortfall in respect of that alternate Friday and each succeeding alternate Friday or preceding working day, if such Friday is a public holiday, in which the default continues.

    (5)(a) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3), the Reserve Bank may require a banking company to furnish to it a return in the form and manner specified by it showing particulars of its assets maintained in accordance with this section and its demand and time liabilities in India, as at the close of business on each day of a month; and

    (b) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (4), on the failure of a banking company to maintain as on any day, the amount so required to be maintained by or under clause (a) of sub-section (2A) the Reserve Bank may, in respect of such default, require the banking company to pay penal interest for that day as provided in clause (a) of sub-section (4) and if the default continues on the next succeeding working day, the penal interest may be increased as provided in clause (b) of sub-section (4) for the concerned days.

    (6)(a) The penalty payable under sub-section (4) and sub-section (5) shall be paid within a period of fourteen days from the date on which a notice issued by the Reserve Bank demanding payment of the same is served on the banking company and in the event of failure of the banking company to pay the same within such period, the penalty may be levied by a direction of the principal civil court having jurisdiction in the area where an office of the defaulting banking company is situated, such direction to be made only upon an application made by the Reserve Bank in this behalf to the court; and
    (b) When the court makes a direction under clause (a), it shall issue a certificate specifying the sum payable by the banking company and every such certificate shall be enforceable in the same manner as if it were a decree made by the court in a suit.

    (7) When under the provisions of clause (b) of sub-section (4), penal interest at the increased rate of five per cent, above the bank rate has become payable by a banking company, if thereafter the amount required to be maintained on the next succeeding alternate Friday, or if such Friday is a public holiday, the next preceding working day, is still below the prescribed minimum, every director, manager or secretary of the banking company, who is knowingly and wilfully a party to the default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees and with a further fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for each subsequent alternate Friday or the preceding working day, as the case may be, on which the default continues.

    (8) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, if the Reserve Bank is satisfied, on an application in writing by the defaulting banking company, that the banking company had sufficient cause for its failure to comply with the provisions of clause (a) of sub-section (2A), the Reserve Bank may not demand the payment of the penal interest.

    Explanation. — In this section, the expression "public holiday" means a day which is a public holiday under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881)].

    25. Assets in India. — (1) The assets in India of every banking company at the close of business on the last Friday of every quarter or, if that Friday is a public holiday under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881), at the close of the business on the preceding working day, shall not be less than seventy-five percent of its demand and time liabilities in India.’

    (2) Every banking company shall, within one month from the end of every quarter, submit to the Reserve Bank a return in the prescribed form and manner of the assets and liabilities referred to in sub-section (1) as at the close of business on the last Friday of the previous quarter, or, if that Friday is a public holiday under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881) at the close of business on the preceding working day:

    Provided that every regional rural bank shall also furnish a copy of the said return to the National Bank.

    (3) For the purposes of this section, —

    (a) "assets in India" shall be deemed to include export bills drawn in, and import bills drawn on and payable in India and expressed in such currencies as the Reserve Bank may from time to time approve in this behalf and also such securities as the Reserve Bank may approve in this behalf notwithstanding that all or any of the said bills or securities are held outside India;

    (b) "liabilities in India" shall not include the paid-up capital or the reserves or any cedit balance in the profit and loss account of the banking company;

    (c) "quarter" means the period of three months ending on the last day of March, June, September or December.

    26. Return of unclaimed deposits. — Every banking company shall, within thirty days after the close of each calendar year, submit a return in the prescribed form and manner to the Reserve Bank as at the end of such calendar year of all accounts in India which have not been operated upon for ten years:

    Provided that in the case of money deposited for a fixed period the said term of ten years shall be reckoned from the date of the expiry of such fixed period:

    Provided further that every regional rural bank shall also furnish a copy of the said return to the National Bank.

    27. Monthly returns and power to call for other returns and information. — (I) Every banking company shall, before me close of the month succeeding that to which it relates, submit to the Reserve Bank a return in the prescribed form and manner showing its assets and liabilities [in India] as at the close of business on the last Friday of every month or if that Friday is a public holiday under the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881), at the close of business on the preceding working day.

    (2) The Reserve Bank may at any time direct a banking company to furnish it within such time as may be specified by the Reserve Bank, with such statements and information relating to the business or affairs of the banking company (including any business or affairs with which such banking company is concerned) as the Reserve Bank may consider necessary or expedient to obtain for the purposes of this Act, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power may call for information every half-year regarding 99[the investments of a banking company and the classification of its advances in respect of industry, commerce and agriculture.

    (3). Every regional rural bank shall submit a copy of the return which it submits to the Reserve Bank under sub-section (1) also to the National Bank and the powers exercisable by the Reserve Bank under sub-section (2) may also be exercised by the National Bank in relation to regional rural banks.

    28. Power to publish information. —The Reserve Bank or the National Bank, or both, if they consider it in the public interest so to do, may publish any information obtained by them under this Act in such consolidated form as they think fit.

    29. Accounts and balance-sheet. —(1) At the expiration of each calendar year or at the expiration of a period of twelve months ending with such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf, every banking company incorporated in India, in respect of all business transacted by it, and every banking company incorporated outside India, in respect of all business transacted through its branches in India, shall prepare with reference to that year or period, as the case may be, a balance-sheet and profit and loss account as on the last working day of that year or the period, as the case may be in the Forms set out in the Third Schedule or as near thereto as circumstances admit:

    Provided that with a view to facilitating the transition from one period, of accounting to another period of-accounting under this sub-section, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions as it considers necessary or expedient for the preparation of, or for other matters relating to, the balance sheet or profit and loss account in respect of the concerned year or period, as the case may be.

    (2) The balance-sheet and profit and loss account shall be signed—

    (a) in the case of a banking company incorporated in India, by the manager or the principal officer of the company and where there are more than three directors of the company, by at least three of those directors, or where there are not more than three directors, by all the directors, and

    (b) in the case of a banking company incorporated outside India by the manager or agent of the principal office of the company in India.

    (3) Notwithstanding that the balance-sheet of a banking company is under subsection (I) required to be prepared in a form other than the form set out in Part I -of Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the requirements of that relating to the balance-sheet and profit and loss account of a company shall, in so far as they are not inconsistent with this Act, apply to the balance-sheet or profit and loss account, as the case may be, of a banking company.

    (3A) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in sub-section (3) of section 210 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the period to which the profit and loss account relates shall, in the case of a banking company, be the period ending with the last working day of the year immediately preceding the year in which the annual general meeting is held.

    Explanation. —In sub-section (3A), "year" means the year or, as the case may be, the period referred to in sub-section (1).

    (4) The Central Government, after giving not less than three months' notice of its mention so to do by a notification in the Official Gazette, may from time to time by a like notification amend the Form set out in the Third Schedule.

    30. Audit. —(1) The balance-sheet and profit and loss account prepared in accordance with section 29 shall be audited by a person duly qualified under any law for the time being in force to be an auditor of companies.

    (1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force or in any contract to the contrary, every banking shall, before appointing re-appointing or removing any auditor or auditors, obtain the previous approval of the Reserve Bank.

    (1B) Without prejudice to anything contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), or any other law for the time being in force, where the Reserve Bank is of opinion that it is necessary in the public interest or in the interest of the banking company or its depositors so to do, it may at any time by order direct that a special audit of the banking company's accounts, for any such transaction or class of transactions or for such period or periods as may be specified in the order, shall be conducted and may by the same or a different order either appoint a person duly qualified under any law for the time being in force to be an auditor of companies or direct the auditor of the banking company himself to conduct such special audit] and the auditor shall comply with such directions and make a report of such audit to the Reserve Bank and forward a copy thereof to the company.

    (1C) The expenses of, or incidental to the special audit specified in the order made by the Reserve Bank shall be borne by the banking company.

    (2) The auditor shall have the powers of, exercise the functions vested in, and discharge the duties and be subject to the liabilities and penalties imposed on, auditors of companies by section 227 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), and auditors, if any, appointed by the law establishing, constituting or forming the banking company concerned.

    (3) In addition to the matters which under the aforesaid Act the auditor is required to state in his report, he shall, in the case of a banking company incorporated in India, state in his report,—

    (a) whether or not the information and explanation required by him have been found to be satisfactory;

    (b) whether or not the transactions of the company which have come to his notice have been within the powers of the company;

    (c) whether or not the returns received from branch offices of the company have been found adequate for the purposes of his audit;

    (d) whether the profit and loss account shows a true balance of profit or loss for the period covered by such account;

    (e) any other matter which he considers should be brought to the notice of the shareholders of the company.

    31. Submission of returns. —The accounts and balance-sheet referred to in section 29 together with the auditor's report shall be published in the prescribed manner and three copies thereof shall be furnished as returns to the Reserve Bank within three months from the end of the period to which they refer:

    Provided that the Reserve Bank may in any case extend the said period of three months for the furnishing of such returns by a further period not exceeding three months:

    Provided further that a regional rural bank shall furnish such returns also to the National Bank.

    32. Copies of balance-sheets and accounts to be sent to registrar. —(1) Where a banking company in any year furnishes its accounts and balance-sheet in accordance with the provisions of section 31, it shall at the same time send to the registrar three copies of such accounts and balance-sheet and of the auditor's report, and where such copies are so sent, it shall not be necessary to file with the registrar, in the case of a public company, copies of the accounts and balance-sheet and of the auditor's report, and, in the case of a private company, copies of the balance-sheet and of the auditor's report as required by sub-section (1) of section 220 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); and the copies so sent shall be chargeable with the same fee and shall be dealt with in all respects as if they were filed in accordance with that section.

    (2) When in pursuance of sub-section (2) of section 27 the Reserve Bank requires any additional statement or information in connection with the balance-sheet and accounts furnished under section 31, the banking company shall, when supplying such statement or information, send a copy thereof to the registrar.

    33. Display of audited balance-sheet by companies incorporated outside India. —Every banking company incorporated outside India shall, not later than the first Monday in August of any year in which it carries on business, display in a conspicuous place in its principal office and in every branch office in India a copy of its last audited balance-sheet and profit and loss account prepared under section 29, and shall keep the copy so displayed until replaced by a copy of the subsequent balance-sheet and profit and loss account so prepared, and every such banking company shall display in like manner copies of its complete audited balance-sheet and profit and loss account relating to its banking business as soon as they are available, and shall keep the copies so displayed until copies of such subsequent accounts are available.

    34. Accounting provisions of this Act not retrospective. —Nothing in this Act shall apply to the preparation of accounts by a banking company and the audit and submission thereof in respect of any accounting year which has expired prior to the commencement of this Act, and notwithstanding the other provisions of this Act, such accounts shall be prepared, audited and submitted in accordance with the law in force immediately before the commencement of this Act.

    34A. Production of documents of confidential nature. —(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 11 of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947), or any other law for the time being in force, no banking company shall, in any proceeding under the said Act or in any appeal or other proceeding arising therefrom or connected therewith, be compelled by any authority before which such proceeding is pending to produce, or give inspection of, any of its books of account or other document or furnish or disclose any statement or information, when the banking company claims that such document, statement or information is of a confidential nature and that the production or inspection of such document or the furnishing or disclosure of such statement or information would involve disclosure of information relating to—

    (a) any reserves not shown as such in its published balance-sheet; or

    (b) any particulars not shown therein in respect of provisions made for bad and doubtful debts and other usual or necessary provisions.

    (2) If, in any such proceeding in relation to any banking company other than the Reserve Bank of India, any question arises as to whether any amount out of the reserves or provisions referred to in sub-section (1) should be taken into account by the authority before which such proceeding is pending, the authority may, if it so thinks fit, refer the question to the Reserve Bank and the Reserve Bank shall, after taking into account principles of sound banking and all relevant circumstances concerning the banking company, furnish to the authority a certificate stating that the authority shall not take into account any amount as such reserves and provisions of the banking company or may take them into account only to the extent of the amount specified by it in the certificate, and the certificate of the Reserve Bank on such question shall be final and shall not be called in question in any such proceeding.

    (3) For the purposes of this section "banking company" includes the Reserve Bank, the Development Bank, the Exim Bank, the Reconstruction Bank, the National Housing Bank, the National Bank, the Small Industries Bank the State Bank of India, a corresponding new bank, a regional rural bank and a subsidiary bank.

    35. Inspection. —(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in section 235 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956)], the Reserve Bank at any time may, and on being directed so to do by the Central Government shall, cause an inspection to be made by one or more of its officers of any banking company and its books and accounts; and the Reserve Bank shall supply to the banking company a copy of its report on such inspection.

    (1A) (a) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any law for the time being in force and without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Reserve Bank, at any time, may also cause a scrutiny to be made by any one or more of its officers, of the affairs of any banking company and its books and accounts; and

    (b) a copy of the report of the scrutiny shall be furnished to the banking company if the banking company makes a request for the same or if any adverse action is contemplated against the banking company on the basis of the scrutiny.

    (2) It shall be the duty of every director or other officer or employee of the banking company to produce to any officer making an inspection under sub-section (1) or a scrutiny under sub-section (1A) all such books, accounts and other documents in his custody or power and to furnish him with any statements and information relating to the affairs of the banking company as the said officer may require of him within such time as the said officer may specify.

    (3) Any person making an inspection under sub-section (1) for a scrutiny under sub-section (1A) may examine on oath any director or other officer or employee of the banking company in relation to its business, and may administer an oath accordingly.

    (4) The Reserve Bank shall, if it has been directed by the Central Government to cause an inspection to be made, and may, in any other case, report to the Central Government on any inspection 130[or scrutiny made under this section, and the Central Government, if it is of opinion after considering the report that the affairs of the banking company are being conducted to the detriment of the interests of its depositors, may, after giving such opportunity to the banking company to make a representation in connection with the report as, in the opinion of the Central Government, seems reasonable, by order in writing—

    (a) prohibit the banking company from receiving fresh deposits;

    (b) direct the Reserve Bank to apply under section 38 for the winding up of the banking company:

    Provided that the Central Government may defer, for such period as it may think fit, the passing of an order under this sub-section, or cancel or modify any such order, upon such terms and conditions as it may think fit to impose.

    (5) The Central Government may, after giving reasonable notice to the banking company, publish the report submitted by the Reserve Bank or such portion thereof as may appear necessary.

    Explanation. —For the purpose of this section, the expression "banking company" shall include—

    (i) in the case of a banking company incorporated outside India, all its branches in India; and

    (ii) in the case of a banking company incorporated in India—

    (a) all its subsidiaries formed for the purpose of carrying on the business of banking exclusively outside India; and

    (b) all its branches whether situated in India or outside India.

    (6) The powers exercisable by the Reserve Bank under this section in relation to regional rural banks may (without prejudice to the exercise of such powers by the Reserve Bank in relation to any regional rural bank whenever it considers necessary so to do) be exercised by the National Sank in relation to the regional rural banks, and accordingly, sub-sections (1) to (5) shall apply in relation to regional rural banks as if every reference therein to the Reserve Bank included also a reference to the National Bank.

    35A. Power of the Reserve Bank to give directions. —(1) Where the Reserve Bank is satisfied that—

    (a) in the public interest; or

    (aa) in the interest of banking policy; or

    (b) to prevent the affairs of any banking company being conducted in a manner detrimental to the interests of the depositors or in a manner prejudicial to the interests of the banking company; or

    (c) to secure the proper management of any banking company generally, it is necessary to issue directions to banking companies generally or to any banking company in particular, it may, from time to time, issue such directions as it deems fit, and the banking companies or the banking company, as the case may be, shall be bound to comply with such directions.

    (2) The Reserve Bank may, on representation made to it or on its own motion, modify or cancel any direction issued under sub-section (1), and in so modifying or cancelling any direction may impose such conditions as it thinks fit, subject to which the modification or cancellation shall have effect.

    35B. Amendments of provisions relating to appointments of managing directors, etc., to be subject to previous approval of the Reserve Bank. —(1) In the case of a banking company—

    (a) no amendment of any provision relating to the maximum permissible number of directors or the appointment or re-appointment or termination of appointment or remuneration of a chairman, a managing director or any other director, whole-time or otherwise or of a manager or a chief executive officer by whatever name called, whether that provision be contained in the company's memorandum or articles of association, or in an agreement entered into by it, or in any resolution passed by the company in general meeting or by its Board of directors shall have effect unless approved by the Reserve Bank;

    (b) no appointment or re-appointment or termination of appointment of a chairman, a managing or whole-time director, manager or chief executive officer by whatever name called, shall have effect unless such appointment, re-appointment or termination of appointment is made with the previous approval of the Reserve Bank.

    Explanation. —For the purpose of this sub-section, any provision conferring any benefit or providing any amenity or perquisite, in whatever form, whether during or after the termination of the term of office of the chairman or the manager or the chief executive officer by whatever name called or the managing director, or any other director, whole-time or otherwise, shall be deemed to be a provision relating to his remuneration.

    (2) Nothing contained in sections 268 and 269, the proviso to sub-section (3) of section 309, sections 310 and 311, the proviso to section 387, and section 388 (in so far as section 388 makes the provisions of sections 269, 310 and 311 apply in relation to the manager of a company) of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), shall apply to any matter in respect of which the approval of the Reserve Bank has to be obtained under sub-section (1).

    (2A) Nothing contained in section 198 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) shall apply to a banking company and the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 309 and of section 387 of that Act shall, in so far as they are applicable to a banking company, have effect as if no reference had been made in the said provisions to section 198 of that Act.

    (3) No act done by a person as chairman or a managing or whole-time director or a director not liable to retire by rotation or a manager or a chief executive officer by whatever name called, shall be deemed to be invalid on the ground that it is subsequently discovered that his appointment or reappointment had not taken effect by reason of any of the provisions of this Act; but nothing in this sub-section shall be construed as rendering valid any act done by such person after his appointment or reappointment has been shown to the banking company not to have had effect.

    36. Further powers and functions of Reserve Banks. —(1) The Reserve Bank may—

    (a) caution or prohibit banking companies or any banking company in particular against entering into any particular transaction or class of transactions, and generally give advice to any banking company;

    (b) on a request by the companies concerned and subject to the provision of section 44A, assist, as intermediary or otherwise, in proposals for the amalgamation of such banking companies;

    (c) give assistance to any banking company by means of the grant of a loan or advance to it under clause (3) of sub-section (1) of section 18 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

    (d) at any time, if it is satisfied that in the public interest or in me interest of banking policy or for preventing the affairs of the banking company being conducted in a manner detrimental to the interests of the banking company or its depositors it is necessary so to do, by order in writing and on such terms and conditions as may be specified therein—

    (i) require the banking company to call a meeting of its directors for the purpose of considering any matter relating to or arising out of the affairs of the banking company; or require an officer of the banking company to discuss any such matter with an officer of the Reserve Bank;

    (ii) depute one or more of its officers to which the proceedings at any meeting of the Board of directors of the banking company or of any committee or of any other body constituted by it; require the banking company to give an opportunity to the officers so deputed to be heard at such meetings and also require such officers to send a report of such proceedings to the Reserve Bank;

    (iii) require the Board of directors of the banking company or any committee or any other body constituted by it to give in writing to any officer specified by the Reserve Bank in this behalf at his usual address all notices of, and other communications relating to, any meeting of the Board, committee or other body constituted by it;

    (iv) appoint one or more of its officers to observe the manner in which the affairs of the banking company or of its offices or branches are being conducted and make a report thereon;

    (v) require the banking company to make, within such time as may be specified in the order, such changes in the management as the Reserve Bank may consider necessary.

    (2) The Reserve Bank shall make an annual report to the Central Government on the trend and progress of banking in the country, with particular reference to its activities under clause (2) of section 17 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), including in such report its suggestions, if any, for the strengthening of banking business throughout the country.

    (3) The Reserve Bank may appoint such staff at such places as it considers necessary for the scrutiny of the returns, statements and information furnished by banking companies under this Act, and generally to ensure the efficient performance of its functions under this Act.

    36A. Certain provisions of the Act not to apply to certain banking companies. —(1) The provisions of section II, sub-section (1) of section 12, and sections 17, 18, 24 and 25 shall not apply to a banking company—

    (a) which, whether before or after the commencement of the Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1959 (33 of 1959), has been refused a licence under section 22, or prohibited from accepting fresh deposits by a compromise, arrangement or scheme sanctioned by a court or by any order made in any proceeding relating to such compromise, arrangement or scheme, or prohibited from accepting deposits by virtue of any alteration made in its memorandum; or

    (b) whose licence has been cancelled under section 22, whether before or after the commencement of the Banking Companies (Amendment) Act, 1959 (33 of 1959).

    (2) Where the Reserve Bank is satisfied that any such banking company as is referred to in sub-section (1) has repaid, or has made adequate provision for repaying all deposits accepted by the banking company, either in full or to the maximum extent possible, the Reserve Bank may, by notice published in the Official Gazette, notify that the banking company has ceased to be a banking company within the meaning of this Act, and thereupon all the provisions of this Act applicable to such banking company shall cease to apply to it, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such notice.

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